THE BIOCHEMICAL ORIGIN OF PAINby Sota Omoigui

References

[1]
Science 1965 Nov 19;150(699):971-9
Pain mechanisms: a new theory.

Melzack R, Wall PD.

[2] [1]

J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990 Mar;72(3):403-8
Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation.

Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel SW.

[3] [2]

N Engl J Med 1994 Jul 14;331(2):69-73
Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain.

Jensen MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, Modic MT, Malkasian D, Ross JS.

[4] [3] Natural history of individuals with asymptomatic disc abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging: predictors of low back pain-related medical consultation and work incapacity.

Boos N, Semmer N, Elfering A, Schade V, Gal I, Zanetti M, Kissling R, Buchegger N, Hodler J, Main CJ.

[5] [4]

Br J Anaesth 1995 Aug;75(2):125-31
Inflammatory mediators of pain.

Dray A.

[6] Gary E. Kaiser Lecture Guide – Community College of Baltimore County

[7] [5]

: Clin J Pain 1991;7 Suppl 1:S8-15
Pathophysiological mechanisms of fibromyalgia.

Zimmermann M.

[8]

FASEB J 2000 Jul;14(10):1464-9
Putative role of neuronal 5-lipoxygenase in an aging brain.

Manev H, Uz T, Sugaya K, Qu T.

[9] [6]

Nature 410, 471 – 475 (2001) © Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
Interleukin-1-mediated induction of Cox-2 in the CNS contributes to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

Tarek A. Samad, Kimberly A. Moore, Adam Sapirstein, Sara Billet, Andrew Allchorne, Stephen Poole, Joseph V. Bonventre & Clifford J. Woolf

[10]

Eur J Neurosci 1999 Mar;11(3):837-46
Adrenergic innervation of rat sensory ganglia following proximal or distal painful sciatic neuropathy: distinct mechanisms revealed by anti-NGF treatment.

Ramer MS, Bisby MA.

[11] [7] Hyperalgesia from subcutaneous cytokines

By Stephen Poole, Fernando de Queiroz Cunha and Sergio Henriques Ferreira

Summary

[12] J Exp Med. 2000;191:313-320.

Horai R, Saijo S, Tanioka H, et al. Development of chronic inflammatory arthropathy resembling rheumatoid arthritis in interleukin 1 receptor antagonist -deficient mice.

[13] Adv Immunol. 1993;54:167-227.

Arend WP. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

[14] J Rheumatol. 1995;22:2250-2258. van Lent PLEM, van de Loo FAJ, Holthuysen AEM, van den Bersselaar LAM, Vermeer H, van den Berg WB. Major role for interleukin 1 but not for tumor necrosis factor in early cartilage damage in immune complex arthritis in mice.

[15] J Exp Med. 2000;191:313-320

Horai R, Saijo S, Tanioka H, et al. Development of chronic inflammatory arthropathy resembling rheumatoid arthritis in interleukin 1 receptor antagonist -deficient mice.

[16] Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:2143-2151.

Gravallese EM, Goldring SR. Cellular mechanisms and the role of cytokines in bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

[17] J Rheumatol. 1995;22:2250-2258.

van Lent PLEM, van de Loo FAJ, Holthuysen AEM, van den Bersselaar LAM, Vermeer H, van den Berg WB. Major role for interleukin 1 but not for tumor necrosis factor in early cartilage damage in immune complex arthritis in mice.

[18]

Brain Res 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):216-25
Intrathecal anti-IL-6 antibody and IgG attenuates peripheral nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia in the rat: possible immune modulation in neuropathic pain.

Arruda JL, Sweitzer S, Rutkowski MD, DeLeo JA.

[19] [8] Intrathecal Methylprednisolone for Intractable Postherpetic Neuralgia

Naoki Kotani, Tetsuya Kushikata, Hiroshi Hashimoto, Futoshi Kimura, Masatoshi Muraoka, Misako Yodono, Mizue Asai, Akitomo Matsuki

[20]

J Neurotrauma 1999 Oct;16(10):851-63
Systemically administered interleukin-10 reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and significantly improves functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.

Bethea JR, Nagashima H, Acosta MC, Briceno C, Gomez F, Marcillo AE, Loor K, Green J, Dietrich WD.

[21]

Exp Neurol 2001 Mar;168(1):144-54
Effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10) on pain behavior and gene expression following excitotoxic spinal cord injury in the rat.

Plunkett JA, Yu CG, Easton JM, Bethea JR, Yezierski RP.

[22] [9] Kayama S, Konno S, Olmarker K, Yabuki S, Kikuchi S, Incision of the anulus fibrosis induces nerve root morphologic, vascular, and functional changes. An experimental study, Spine 1996; 21: 2539-43.

[23] [10] Olmarker K, Rydevik B, Nordborg C, Autologous nucleus pulposus induces neurophysiologic and histologic changes in porcine cauda equina nerve roots, Spine 1993; 18: 1425-32.

[24] [11] Olmarker K, Myers R R, Pathogenesis of sciatic pain: Role of herniated nucleus pulposus and deformation of spinal nerve root and DRG, Pain, 1998, 78: 9-105

[25] [12] Hyperalgesic Actions of Cytokines on Peripheral Nerves

By Robert R. Myers, Rochelle Wagner and Linda Sorkin

[26] P Borden, RA Heller: Transcriptional control of matrix metalloproteinases and the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 1997, 7: 159-178

[27] C He: Molecular mechanism of transcriptional activation of human gelatinase B by proximal promoter
Cancer Lett 1996, 106: 185-191

[28] Active synovial matrix metalloproteinase-2 is associated with radiographic erosions in patients with early synovitis
Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky1, Jennifer M Lee1, Joseph M Hoxworth1, David Smith II1, Paul Duray1, Ralph H Schumacher Jr1, Cheryl H Yarboro1, John Klippel1, David Kleiner1 and Hani S El-Gabalawy1

Arthritis Res 2000 2: 145-153

[29]

J Neurosci 1996 Dec 15;16(24):7910-9
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is synthesized in neurons of the human hippocampus and is capable of degrading the amyloid-beta peptide (1-40).

Backstrom JR, Lim GP, Cullen MJ, Tokes ZA.

[30] [13]

Pain 2000 Feb;84(2-3):159-67
Cytokine involvement in dynorphin-induced allodynia.

Laughlin TM, Bethea JR, Yezierski RP, Wilcox GL.
[31]

Lakartidningen 1997 Nov 26;94(48):4461-6
[A breakthrough in the research on pain. Survey of the synaptic network may result in new analgesics]

Olgart L.

[32] [20]

Rev Prat 1994 Jun 15;44(12):1569-71
[Substance P and rheumatic diseases]

[Article in French]

Menkes CJ, Renoux M.

[33]

Inflammation 1992 Dec;16(6):587-601
Effects of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on osteoblastic expression of osteocalcin and mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro.

Taichman RS, Hauschka PV.

[34]

Calcif Tissue Int 1993 Mar;52(3):227-33
Proliferative responses to estradiol, IL-1 alpha and TGF beta by cells expressing alkaline phosphatase in human osteoblast-like cell cultures.

Rickard DJ, Gowen M, MacDonald BR.

[35]

Arthritis Rheum 2001 Oct;44(10):2320-30
In vivo dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase by ML-3000 reduces the progression of experimental osteoarthritis: suppression of collagenase 1 and interleukin-1beta synthesis.

Jovanovic DV, Fernandes JC, Martel-Pelletier J, Jolicoeur FC, Reboul P, Laufer S, Tries S, Pelletier JP.

[36] [15]

Spine 2000 Dec 1;25(23):2975-80
2000 Volvo Award winner in basic science studies: Exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha mimics nucleus pulposus-induced neuropathology. Molecular, histologic, and behavioral comparisons in rats.

Igarashi T, Kikuchi S, Shubayev V, Myers RR

[37] [16]

Spine 2001 Apr 15;26(8):863-9
Selective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha prevents nucleus pulposus-induced thrombus formation, intraneural edema, and reduction of nerve conduction velocity: possible implications for future pharmacologic treatment strategies of sciatica.

Olmarker K, Rydevik B.

[38] [17]

Schmerz 2001 Dec;15(6):425-9
Radicular pain – recent pathophysiologic concepts and therapeutic implications.

Olmarker K.

[39] [18]

J Orthop Res 2000 Sep;18(5):815-20
Nitric oxide as a mediator of nucleus pulposus-induced effects on spinal nerve roots.

Brisby H, Byrod G, Olmarker K, Miller VM, Aoki Y, Rydevik B.

[40] [19]

Spine 1997 Nov 1;22(21):2484-8
The inflammatory properties of contained and noncontained lumbar disc herniation.

Nygaard OP, Mellgren SI, Osterud B.

[41] [31]

Environ Health Perspect 1995 Jan;103(1):54-6
Neurogenic switching: a hypothesis for a mechanism for shifting the site of inflammation in allergy and chemical sensitivity.

Meggs WJ.

[42] [32]

BioDrugs 2001;15(8):521-31
BioDrugs 2001;15(8):521-31

Neuroendocrine and immune aspects of fibromyalgia.

van West D, Maes M.

[43] [33]

Arthritis Rheum 1994 Nov;37(11):1593-601
Elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of substance P in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome.

Russell IJ, Orr MD, Littman B, Vipraio GA, Alboukrek D, Michalek JE, Lopez Y, MacKillip F.

[44] [34]

Pain 1988 Jan;32(1):21-6
Elevated CSF levels of substance P and high incidence of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with fibromyalgia: new features for diagnosis.

Vaeroy H, Helle R, Forre O, Kass E, Terenius L.

[45] [35]

J Rheumatol Suppl 1989 Nov;19:94-7
Modulation of pain in fibromyalgia (fibrositis syndrome): cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigation of pain related neuropeptides with special reference to calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP).

Vaeroy H, Sakurada T, Forre O, Kass E, Terenius L.

[46] [36]

Z Rheumatol 1998;57 Suppl 2:63-6
Neurochemical pathogenesis of fibromyalgia.

Russell IJ.

[47] [37]

Pain 2000 Aug;87(2):201-11
Changes in the concentrations of amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid that correlate with pain in patients with fibromyalgia: implications for nitric oxide pathways.

Larson AA, Giovengo SL, Russell IJ, Michalek JE.

[48] [38]

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001 Jul;40(7):743-9
Cytokines play an aetiopathogenetic role in fibromyalgia: a hypothesis and pilot study.

Wallace DJ, Linker-Israeli M, Hallegua D, Silverman S, Silver D, Weisman MH.

[49]

J Urol 2000 Dec;164(6):2119-25
Pentosanpolysulfate inhibits mast cell histamine secretion and intracellular calcium ion levels: an alternative explanation of its beneficial effect in interstitial cystitis.

Chiang G, Patra P, Letourneau R, Jeudy S, Boucher W, Green M, Sant GR, Theoharides TC.

[50]

Br J Urol 1995 Jun;75(6):744-50
Increased number of substance P positive nerve fibres in interstitial cystitis.

Pang X, Marchand J, Sant GR, Kream RM, Theoharides TC.

[51]

J Urol 1998 Aug;160(2):605-11
Comment in:

. J Urol 1998 Aug;160(2 ):298
High affinity binding sites for [3H] substance P in urinary bladders of cats with interstitial cystitis.

Buffington CA, Wolfe SA Jr.

[52]

J Urol 1992 Mar;147(3):587-91
Interstitial cystitis: increased sympathetic innervation and related neuropeptide synthesis.

Hohenfellner M, Nunes L, Schmidt RA, Lampel A, Thuroff JW, Tanagho EA.

[53]

J Urol 1996 Aug;156(2 Pt 1):532-5
Potentiation by bradykinin and substance P of purinergic neurotransmission in urinary bladder.

Patra PB, Westfall DP.

[54] [39]

Urology 1999 Sep;54(3):450-3
Preliminary study on urinary cytokine levels in interstitial cystitis: does intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin treat interstitial cystitis by altering the immune profile in the bladder?

Peters KM, Diokno AC, Steinert BW.

[55]

Can J Neurol Sci 1999 Nov;26 Suppl 3:S12-9
Pathophysiology of migraine–new insights.

Hargreaves RJ, Shepheard SL.

[56]

Blood Vessels 1991;28(1-3):35-45
Innervation and effects of dilatory neuropeptides on cerebral vessels. New aspects.

Edvinsson L.

[57]

Microsc Res Tech 2001 May 1;53(3):167-78
Neurogenic inflammation in the context of migraine.

Williamson DJ, Hargreaves RJ.

[58]

Lakartidningen 2001 Sep 26;98(39):4176-83
[Both neurogenic and vascular causes of primary headache]

[Article in Swedish]

Edvinsson L.

[59]

Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 1989 Fall;1(3):230-52
Neuropeptides in the cerebral circulation.

Uddman R, Edvinsson L.

[60] [14] Regulation of meningeal blood flow by neuropeptides: Relevance to migraine

By K. Messlinger, M. Pawlak

[61]

Pain 2000 Dec 1;88(3):239-48
Possible role of inflammatory mediators in tactile hypersensitivity in rat models of mononeuropathy.

Cui JG, Holmin S, Mathiesen T, Meyerson BA, Linderoth B.

[62]

Eur J Neurosci 1999 Mar;11(3):837-46
Adrenergic innervation of rat sensory ganglia following proximal or distal painful sciatic neuropathy: distinct mechanisms revealed by anti-NGF treatment.

Ramer MS, Bisby MA.

[63]

Neurosci Lett 2002 Feb 22;319(3):137-40
Increases in the concentration of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn are associated with pain behavior following chronic constriction injury in rats.

Miletic G, Miletic V.

[64]

Clin J Pain 2000 Jun;16(2 Suppl):S7-11
Neurotrophic factors and pain.

Apfel SC.

[65]

J Hand Surg [Am] 2001 Jul;26(4):635-44
Nerve growth factor inhibition prevents traumatic neuroma formation in the rat.

Kryger GS, Kryger Z, Zhang F, Shelton DL, Lineaweaver WC, Buncke HJ.

[66]

Pain 1999 Feb;79(2-3):265-74
Effect of NGF and anti-NGF on neuropathic pain in rats following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve.

Ro LS, Chen ST, Tang LM, Jacobs JM.

[67]

Clin J Pain 2000 Jun;16(2 Suppl):S12-20
Peripheral neuropathic pain: from mechanisms to symptoms.

Baron R.

[68] [5]

Clin J Pain 1991;7 Suppl 1:S8-15
Pathophysiological mechanisms of fibromyalgia.

Zimmermann M.

[69]

Neuroreport 2001 Jul 20;12(10):2079-84
NF-kappa B decoy suppresses cytokine expression and thermal hyperalgesia in a rat neuropathic pain model.

Sakaue G, Shimaoka M, Fukuoka T, Hiroi T, Inoue T, Hashimoto N, Sakaguchi T, Sawa Y, Morishita R, Kiyono H, Noguchi K, Mashimo T.

[70] [6]

Nature 410, 471 – 475 (2001) © Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
Interleukin-1-mediated induction of Cox-2 in the CNS contributes to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

Tarek A. Samad, Kimberly A. Moore, Adam Sapirstein, Sara Billet, Andrew Allchorne, Stephen Poole, Joseph V. Bonventre & Clifford J. Woolf

[71] Oyelese, A.A., Rizzo M..A., Waxman, S.G. and Kocsis, J.D. (1997) Differential effects of NGF and BDNF on axotomy-induced changes in GABAA receptor-mediated conductance and sodium currents in cutaneous afferent neurons.Journal of Neurophysiology, 78:31-42.

[72] Waxman, S.G. (1999) The molecular pathophysiology of pain: abnormal expression of sodium channel genes and its contributions to hyperexcitability in primary sensory neurons. Pain. 6, S133-S140.

[73] Black, J.A., Langworthy, K., Hinson, A.W., Dibb-Hajj, S.D., and Waxman, S.G. (1997) NGF has opposing effects on Na+ channel III and SNS gene expression in spinal sensory neurons.. NeuroReport, 8: 2331-2335.

[74] Everill, B., and Kocsis, J.D., (1999) Reduction of potassium currents in identified cutaneous afferent DRG neurons after axotomy. Journal of Neurophysiology, 82, 700-708.

[75] [21]

Lancet 1993 Oct 23;342(8878):1012-6
Signs and symptoms of reflex sympathetic dystrophy: prospective study of 829 patients.

Veldman PH, Reynen HM, Arntz IE, Goris RJ.

[76] [22]

Radiologe 1992 Oct;32(10):509-15
[Bone marrow edema in MRT]

[Article in German]

Vahlensieck M, Reiser M.

[77] [23]

Pain 2000 Dec 1;88(3):259-66
Patterns of spread in complex regional pain syndrome, type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy).

Maleki J, LeBel AA, Bennett GJ, Schwartzman RJ.

[78] [24]

Unfallchirurg 1997 Feb;100(2):90-9
[Sudeck’s syndrome. Was Sudeck right?]

[Article in German]

van der Laan L, Goris RJ.

[79] [25]

Vasc Med 1998;3(3):207-14
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: facts and hypotheses.

Kurvers HA.
[80] [26]

Pharmacol Rev 2000 Dec;52(4):595-638
The sympathetic nerve–an integrative interface between two supersystems: the brain and the immune system.

Elenkov IJ, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP, Vizi ES.

[81] [27]

Neurology 2001 Dec 26;57(12):2179-84
The important role of neuropeptides in complex regional pain syndrome.

Birklein F, Schmelz M, Schifter S, Weber M.

[82] [28]

Acta Orthop Belg 1998 Dec;64(4):448-51
Role of neuropeptides in pathogenesis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

Blair SJ, Chinthagada M, Hoppenstehdt D, Kijowski R, Fareed J.

[83] [29] Hyperalgesia from subcutaneous cytokines

By Stephen Poole, Fernando de Queiroz Cunha and Sergio Henriques Ferreira

[84]

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001 Sep;40(9):995-1001
Interleukin-1-induced subacromial synovitis and shoulder pain in rotator cuff diseases.

Gotoh M, Hamada K, Yamakawa H, Yanagisawa K, Nakamura M, Yamazaki H, Ueyama Y, Tamaoki N, Inoue A, Fukuda H

[85]

J Orthop Res 1999 May;17(3):392-7
Increased interleukin-1beta production in the synovium of glenohumeral joints with anterior instability.

Gotoh M, Hamada K, Yamakawa H, Nakamura M, Yamazaki H, Inoue A, Fukuda H.

[86]

Kobe J Med Sci 2001 Feb;47(1):25-34
Immunolocalization of cytokines and growth factors in subacromial bursa of rotator cuff tear patients.

Sakai H, Fujita K, Sakai Y, Mizuno K.

[87]

Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991 Oct;165(4 Pt 2):1228-33
Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: an overview.

Marinoff SC, Turner ML.

[88]

Obstet Gynecol 1997 Feb;89(2):291-6
Elevated tissue levels of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vulvar vestibulitis.

Foster DC, Hasday JD

[89] [40]

Pain 1999 Apr;80(3):555-66
Methylprednisolone prevents the development of autotomy and neuropathic edema in rats, but has no effect on nociceptive thresholds.

Kingery WS, Castellote JM, Maze M.

[90] [41]

Immunol Lett 1997 Aug;58(3):153-7
Chronic exposure to morphine, but not ethanol, attenuates the expression of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme in rat spleen.

Graf JA, Patel JA, Chang SL.

[91] [42]

35: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1997 Mar;4(2):127-32
Immunoregulatory effects of morphine on human lymphocytes.

Nair MP, Schwartz SA, Polasani R, Hou J, Sweet A, Chadha KC.

[92] [43]

36: J Neuroimmunol 1997 Mar;73(1-2):1-6
Effect of morphine on lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in vivo: involvement of the sympathetic nervous system.

Bencsics A, Elenkov IJ, Vizi ES.

[93] [44]

19: Int J Immunopharmacol 2000 Aug;22(8):603-14
Pharmacokinetics and cytokine production in heroin and morphine-treated mice..

Pacifici R, di Carlo S, Bacosi A, Pichini S, Zuccaro P.

[94]

Br J Pharmacol 2001 Jul;133(6):807-14
Role of opioid receptors in neurogenic dural vasodilation and sensitization of trigeminal neurones in anaesthetized rats.

Williamson DJ, Shepheard SL, Cook DA, Hargreaves RJ, Hill RG, Cumberbatch MJ..

[95]

Eur J Biochem 1987 Jun 15;165(3):675-81
Botulinum toxin A blocks glutamate exocytosis from guinea-pig cerebral cortical synaptosomes.

Sanchez-Prieto J, Sihra TS, Evans D, Ashton A, Dolly JO, Nicholls DG.

[96]

J Biol Chem 1993 May 25;268(15):11057-64
Botulinum toxin inhibits arachidonic acid release associated with acetylcholine release from PC12 cells.

Ray P, Berman JD, Middleton W, Brendle J.

[97]

Cell Tissue Res 1992 Feb;267(2):291-300
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and acetylcholine coexist with neuropeptide Y, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide in neuronal subpopulations in cranial parasympathetic ganglia of rat.

Hardebo JE, Suzuki N, Ekblad E, Owman C.

[98] [45]

Mol Cell Biol 1989 May;9(5):2239-43
Effects of botulinum toxin type D on secretion of tumor necrosis factor from human monocytes.
Imamura K, Spriggs D, Ohno T, Kufe D.

[99] [67]

Arthritis Rheum 2001 Sep;44(9):2112-7
Efficacy of etanercept in the treatment of the entheseal pathology in resistant spondylarthropathy: a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study.

Marzo-Ortega H, McGonagle D, O’Connor P, Emery P.

[100] [68]

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2001 Jun;6(2):67-72
Etanercept reduces hyperalgesia in experimental painful neuropathy.

Sommer C, Schafers M, Marziniak M, Toyka KV.

[101] [69]

Spine 2001 Apr 15;26(8):863-9
Selective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha prevents nucleus pulposus-induced thrombus formation, intraneural edema, and reduction of nerve conduction velocity: possible implications for future pharmacologic treatment strategies of sciatica.

Olmarker K, Rydevik B.

[102] [46]

Lab Invest 2001 Aug;81(8):1109-17
Inhibitors of Phosphodiesterase Isoforms III or IV Suppress Islet-Cell Nitric Oxide Production.

Beshay E, Prud’homme GJ.

[103] [47]

Spine 2001 Apr 15;26(8):870-5
Prevention of compartment syndrome in dorsal root ganglia caused by exposure to nucleus pulposus.

Yabuki S, Onda A, Kikuchi S, Myers RR.

[104] [48]

Reference – Clin Exp Immunol 1996 Jun;104(3):501-8
Inhibitory effect of clarithromycin on costimulatory molecule expression and cytokine production by synovial fibroblast-like cells.
Matsuoka N, Eguchi K, Kawakami A, Tsuboi M, Kawabe Y, Aoyagi T, Nagataki S.

[105] [49] Amin A R, Attur M G, Thakker G D, Patel P D, Vyas P R, Patel R N, Patel I R, Abramson S B, A novel mechanism of action of tetracyclines: effects on nitric oxide syntheses, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996; 93: 14014-9.

[106] [50] Steinrneyer J, Daufeldt S, Taiwo Y O, Pharmacological effect of tetracyclines on proteoglycanases from interleukin-l-treated articular cartilage, Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55: 93-100

[107] [51] Kloppenburg M, Verweij C L, Miltenburg A M, Verboeven A J, Daha M R, Dijlanans B A, Breeveld F C, The influence of tetracyclines on T cell activation, Clin EU Immunol 1995; 102: 635-41.

[108] [52] Shapira L, Houri Y, Barak V, Soskolne W A, Halabi A, Stabholz A, Tetracycline inhibits’ Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide- induced lesions in vivo and TNF .alpha. processing in vitro, J Periodontal Res 1997; 32: 183-8

[109] [53] Chao C C, Hu S, Ehrlich L, Peterson P K, Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synergistically mediate neurotoxicity: involvement of nitric oxide and of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, Brain Behav Immun 1995; 9: 355-65

[110] [54] Bluthe R M, Dantzer R, Kelley K W, Interleukin-I mediates behavioural but not metabolic effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha in mice, Eur J Pharmacol 1991; 209: 281-3.

[111] [55] . Hartung B P, Jung S, Stoll G, Zielasek J, Schmidt B, Archelos J J, Toyka K V, Inflammatory mediators in demyelinating disorders of the CNS and PNS, J Neuroinununol 1992; 40: 197-210.

[112] [56] Sommer C, Schmidt C, George A, Toyka K V, A metalloprotease-inhibitor reduces pain associated behaviour in mice with experimental neuropathy, Neurosci Lett 1997;237:45-8.

[113] [57] Stoll G, Jung S, Jander S, van der Meide P, Hartung B P, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in immunomediated demyelination and Wallerian degeneration of the rat peripheral nervous system, Neuroimmunol 1993; 45: 175-82.

[114] [58]

J Rheumatol 1998 Mar;25(3):532-5
Oral administration of doxycycline reduces collagenase and gelatinase activities in extracts of human osteoarthritic cartilage.

Smith GN Jr, Yu LP Jr, Brandt KD, Capello WN.

[115] [59]

Ryumachi 1998 Dec;38(6):801-9
[An evaluation of efficacy of minocycline as an anti-rheumatic drug in patients with active and refractory rheumatoid arthritis]

[Article in Japanese]

Kawanaka N, Yamamura M, Hashimoto H, Okamoto H, Morita Y, Kawashima M, Aita T, Okamoto A, Makino H.

[116] [60]

Arthritis Rheum 1999 Aug;42(8):1691-5
Treatment of early seropositive rheumatoid arthritis with minocycline: four-year followup of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

O’Dell JR, Paulsen G, Haire CE, Blakely K, Palmer W, Wees S, Eckhoff PJ, Klassen LW, Churchill M, Doud D, Weaver A, Moore GF.

[117] [61]

Spine 2000 Dec 1;25(23):2975-80
2000 Volvo Award winner in basic science studies: Exogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha mimics nucleus pulposus-induced neuropathology. Molecular, histologic, and behavioral comparisons in rats.

Igarashi T, Kikuchi S, Shubayev V, Myers RR

[118] [62]

Spine 1998 Dec 1;23(23):2538-44
Tumor necrosis factor alpha and nucleus-pulposus-induced nerve root injury.

Olmarker K, Larsson K.

[119] [63]

Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 2000;113:37-45
Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

Wolf H.

[120] [64]

Free Radic Res Commun 1987;3(1-5):13-8
Are toxic oxygen radicals involved in the pathogenesis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy?

Goris RJ, Dongen LM, Winters HA.

[121] [65]

Radiologe 1992 Oct;32(10):509-15
[Bone marrow edema in MRT]

[Article in German]

Vahlensieck M, Reiser M.

[122] [66]

Clin Rheumatol 1997 Jan;16(1):51-6
Treatment of severe, recalcitrant reflex sympathetic dystrophy: assessment of efficacy and safety of the second generation bisphosphonate pamidronate.

Cortet B, Flipo RM, Coquerelle P, Duquesnoy B, Delcambre B.

[123]

Cancer 1997 Oct 15;80(8 Suppl):1546-56
Mechanisms of bone metastasis.
Mundy GR.

[124]

Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program) 2000;:147-165
Multiple Myeloma: New Insights and Therapeutic Approaches.

Anderson KC, Kyle RA, Dalton WS, Landowski T, Shain K, Jove R, Hazlehurst L, Berenson J.

[125] [70]

Anesthesiology 1995 Nov;83(5):1046-54
Intrathecal amitriptyline acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in the presence of inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats.

Eisenach JC, Gebhart GF.

[126] [71]

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2000 Nov;25(8):785-97
The effect of repeated amitriptyline and desipramine administration on cytokine release in C57BL/6 mice.

Kubera M, Holan V, Mathison R, Maes M.

[127] [72]

Eur J Neurosci 2000 Jul;12(7):2623-33
Inflammatory cytokines and related genes are induced in the rat hippocampus by limbic status epilepticus.

De Simoni MG, Perego C, Ravizza T, Moneta D, Conti M, Marchesi F, De Luigi A, Garattini S, Vezzani A.

[128] [73]

Neuroscience 1999;91(1):211-9
Corticosterone and phenytoin reduce neuronal nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA expression in rat hippocampus.
Reagan LP, McKittrick CR, McEwen BS..

[129] [74]

Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1999;105(1-2):23-33
Zonisamide inhibits nitric oxide synthase activity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate and buthionine sulfoximine in the rat hippocampus.

Noda Y, Mori A, Packer L.

[130] [75]

Brain Res 2000 Feb 28;857(1-2):246-51
Sodium valproate inhibits production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of NF-kappaB.

Ichiyama T, Okada K, Lipton JM, Matsubara T, Hayashi T, Furukawa S.

[131] [76]

Am J Med Sci 1994 Jul;308(1):38-40
Positive response to oral divalproex sodium (Depakote) in patients with spasticity and pain.

Zachariah SB, Borges EF, Varghese R, Cruz AR, Ross GS.

[132]

Pain 2000 Dec 1;88(3):267-75
Thalidomide treatment in chronic constrictive neuropathy decreases endoneurial tumor necrosis factor-alpha, increases interleukin-10 and has long-term effects on spinal cord dorsal horn met-enkephalin.
George A, Marziniak M, Schafers M, Toyka KV, Sommer C.

[133]

Arch Intern Med 2001 Nov 12;161(20):2502-3
Complete resolution of reflex sympathetic dystrophy with thalidomide treatment.

Rajkumar SV, Fonseca R, Witzig TE.

[134] [72]

Eur J Neurosci 2000 Jul;12(7):2623-33
Inflammatory cytokines and related genes are induced in the rat hippocampus by limbic status epilepticus.

De Simoni MG, Perego C, Ravizza T, Moneta D, Conti M, Marchesi F, De Luigi A, Garattini S, Vezzani A.

[135]

JAMA 1998 Apr 8;279(14):1076-82
Comment in:

· JAMA. 1998 Apr 8;279(14):1114-5.

· JAMA. 1998 Aug 12;280(6):517-8.
Preemptive epidural analgesia and recovery from radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

Gottschalk A, Smith DS, Jobes DR, Kennedy SK, Lally SE, Noble VE, Grugan KF, Seifert HA, Cheung A, Malkowicz SB, Gutsche BB, Wein AJ.

[136]

Acta Anaesthesiol Sin 1997 Jun;35(2):97-102
Erratum in:

· Acta Anaesthesiol Sin 1997 Sep;35(3):191

The preemptive effect of pre-incisional bupivacaine infiltration on postoperative analgesia following lower abdominal surgery under epidural anesthesia.

Huang SJ, Wang JJ, Ho ST, Liu HS, Liaw WJ, Li MJ, Liu YH.

[137]

Arch Surg 1997 Jul;132(7):766-9
Comparing preincisional with postincisional bupivacaine infiltration in the management of postoperative pain.
Bourget JL, Clark J, Joy N.